ccTLD: CN (the date of ccTLD delegation: 1990-11-28)

Population (Year)

     1,288,307,100 (2000)    1,330,141,295 (2010)    1,336,718,015 (2011)

Internet Population (Year)

      22,500,000 (2000)    420,000,000 (2010)       513,100,000 (2011)


Broadband Population (Year)

     126,337,000 (2010)

IP Address Allocation (Year):

      Number of IPv4 addresses: 330,319,104 (2012)

      Number of IPv6/48s : 616,300,550 (2012)


5 Popular Websites[from]:

    QQ.COM: 新浪新中心:

    Google 谷歌 :


[China 2015] China's Internet Advances,, 2015.

[CNCERT 2015] CNCERT, China's Cyberspace Landscape, ppt, APRICOT, 2015.

[CNNIC 2011] CNNIC, Statistical Report on Internet Development in China, 2011.

[Hu 1992] Hu Daoyuan, “Academic Networking in China,” Proc. 1992 INET, Kobe, 1992.

[Hu 1994] Hu Daoyuan and Lu Ming, “The Construction and Development of Information Infrastructure in China,” Proc. IFIP South East Asia Communications Conference '94 (SEACOMM’94), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Oct. 1994.

[Kuo 1992] Franklin F. Kuo, Networking in The People’s Republic of China, 1992.

[Kuo 1996] Franklin F. Kuo and Xing Li, “Perspectives on the Development of China's Internet,” Proc. the 7th Joint European Networking Conference, Budapest, May 1996.

[Li 1995] Xing Li, Jianping Wu and Youneng Liang, Connecting China Education Community to the Global Internet - The China Education and Research Network Project,” Proc. 1995 INET, Hawaii, USA, June 1995.

[Li 1995b] Xing Li, Jianping Wu and Youneng Liang, “The Planning, Implementation and the Social Impact of the China Education and Research Network Project,” Proc. the 6th Pacific Science Conference, Beijing, 1995.

[Li 1996] Xing Li, Jianping Wu, and Youneng Liang, “China Education and Research Network - A Continuous Report,” Proc. 1996 INET, Montreal, Canada, June 1996.

[Zorn 2005] Werner Zorn, China: How was connected to the international computer networks, (revised in 2005). (Original version: Werner Zorn: "Wie China mit den internationalen Rechnernetzen verbunden wurde", in PIK-Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation, 11. Jahrgang 1988, Heft 1, S.22-29.)


by Hu Daoyuan

Internet in China went through the three phases in ten years (1981—1990).  


First phase: Building Local Area Network and Campus Network.

Due to western’s embargo and lacking of foreign exchanges, China’s network construction could only

depend on self-reliance and hard working. Tsinghua University Campus Network (TUNET) is the first

campus network that adopts TCP/IP structure in China, The TUNET project started in 1987.


Second phase: Accessing emails through foreign Internet sites.

With the support from Karlsruhe University in Germany, ICA (Institute for Computer Application) successfully

sent out an email to Germany [Zorn 2005]. By cooperation with the foreign organizations, there were other several

Chinese organizations launched their email access such as the cooperation between High Energy Physics

of Chinese Academy of Science and European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the

cooperation between Tsinghua University and University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada.  


Third phase: Building IP network under .cn ccTLD

National Computing and Networking Facility of China(NCFC)[Hu 1992] is an education and research demonstration

network sponsored by the State Planning Commission (SPC) and the World Bank. NCFC is the hierarchically

structured internet with a backbone connecting three campus networks; Tsinghua University Campus Network

(TUNET), Beijing University Campus Network (BUNET), and Campus Network of the Academy of Sciences of

China (CASNET). This project started in 1989.


The Internet Timeline of China [CNNIC 2004] states major events in Internet development of China in this period.

Academic Networking in China” was published in INET’92’ [Hu 1992]. It introduced the Internet development of China

in 1980s. “Networking in The People’s Republic of China “[Kuo 1992] written by Dr. Franklin F. Kuo did an objective

appraisal towards the development of communication and network of China. Although starting late and weak basis,

efforts in these ten years still formed a foundation for smoothly connecting with the international Internet in the future.


China’s Internet gets very big development by thirty years endeavors. By the end of 2011, the Internet users in

China exceeded 0.5 billion. International link bandwidth reached 1,389,529Mbps. The Internet in China became

an indispensable national information infrastructure with network news, ecommerce, instant communication,

blog, network video and so on.


Updated: 2015-12-17 Contact Sec at InternetHistory.Asia for further information.